Yoshinori Ohsumi works at the Tokyo Institute of technology as a cell biology specialist. The scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize for his research in medicine and physiology in 2016. He was awarded for the “discovery of the autophagy mechanisms”.
Swelling of muscle cells is nothing more than a agglomeration of protein waste.
Since 1980, the medical community has known that cells are able to get rid of unnecessary structures and individual molecules. But so far no one could understand how this happened. It was only known that there are special organelles in cells - lysosomes. They constantly contained half-decomposed remnants of other cell components. Also, specialists have identified autophagosomes, the so-called “carts”, able to transfer individual cell components to lysosomes.
If any structural part of the cell becomes unnecessary, then it is enveloped by a special membrane, forming a bubble with an organelle (or part of it) inside. The entire structure moves towards lysosome to merge with it. There is a segregation of the “garbage” fragment of the cell into elementary constituents with the help of enzymes.
Further, the residue is removed. This happens by packing them in a membrane bubble by kinesin protein and removing it from the cell. Until now, lysosomes were considered a kind of dump for all muscle cells protein structures that had worked off. They are able to perform their functions autonomously, without the need for outside feeding. Lysosomes use available internal resources many times, which cannot be said about people.
The “garbage” proteins dissolve into amino acids by proteasomes. These construction elements are used by the cell repeatedly to create new proteins.
Human body needs 200-300 g of protein daily in order to function normally. Meals provide about 70 g. The missing quantity of cell proteins is obtained by processing the spent components in proteasomes. This is the process that was called autophagy. The studies of Yoshinori Ohsumi have proved that only autophagy enables the cell to self-renew “massively”.
The peculiarity of proteasomes is that they do not destroy all proteins that are in the cell, but only selective ones. Large parts of cells, which include not only proteins, but also lipids, and nucleic acids in their structure, are cleaved in autophagosomes. The cell receives additional energy at the time of the substance transition from the autophagosomes that have merged with the lysosomes into simpler compounds.
Swelling occurs in case of violations of “self-eating” process in muscle cells. This is due to the fact that autophagosomes and lysosomes become unable to cope with excess proteins.
The period of human embryonic development is characterized by active changes in tissues, that become possible only through the autophagy process. The worked off cellular parts are cleaved into elements, and after that new organelles are created, necessary at that moment.
Among children with cerebral palsy, muscle swelling is formed at the week 6 of intrauterine development precisely because of the autophagy process failure.
The main merit of Yoshinori Ohsumi is that he made a risky bet on an understudied and unpopular topic, but he won. He wasn’t aiming to become a Nobel laureate, but just did his job. Due to him now it became known that anomalies in autophagy processes affect the development of infantile cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, diabetes and cancer.
The cost of a written request to the doctor - 800 $
Information on this site is for informational purposes only, collected from open sources. When copying materials the hyperlink to klinikanikonova.ru is obligatory!
FIND OUT HOW TO GET A CONSULTATION OR ASK DR. NIKONOV A QUESTION
Liliia Aleksandrovna prepared a video message, where she tells how to sign up for a consultation procedure or ask the doctor for a question.
Detailed instructions, methods of payment, and the application form can be found at the link: